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The Book of Daniel is a 2nd-century BC biblical apocalypse combining a prophecy of history Page semi-protected The book's influence has resonated through later ages, from the Dead Sea Development; Authorship; Dating of Jeremiah's prophecy of the seventy weeks (–27 – Median era; Hebrew). Left Behind is a series of 16 best-selling religious novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins, The series has been adapted into four films to date. . (Large chunks of several U.S. cities have been bombed to smithereens by page of Book 3.)" 8 Death Strike; 9 The Search; 10 On The Run; 11 Into The Storm; Find the best books for kids: Whether you're looking for classic kids' books, best- sellers, or great new book recommendations, these are the best page-turners!.
Another early book, The New England Primerwas in print by and used in schools for years. The primer begins, "In Adam's fall We sinned all It also contained religious maxims, acronymsspelling help and other educational items, all decorated by woodcuts. Charles Perrault began recording fairy tales in France, publishing his first collection in They were not well received among the French literary society, who saw them as only fit for old people and children.
It is considered to be the first picture book produced specifically for children. A Pretty and Splendid Maiden's Mirror, an adaptation of a German book for young women, became the first Swedish children's book upon its publication.
Called the first European storybook to contain fairy-tales, it eventually had 75 separate stories and written for an adult audience. A Little Pretty Pocket-Bookwritten and published by John Newberyis widely considered the first modern children's book, published in It was a landmark as the first children's publication aimed at giving enjoyment to children,  containing a mixture of rhymes, picture stories and games for pleasure.
The book was child—sized with a brightly colored cover that appealed to children—something new in the publishing industry. Known as gift books, these early books became the precursors to the toy books popular in the 19th century. According to the journal The Lion and the Unicorn"Newbery's genius was in developing the fairly new product category, children's books, through his frequent advertisements He published his own books as well as those by authors such as Samuel Johnson and Oliver Goldsmith ; : Another philosopher who influenced the development of children's literature was Jean-Jacques Rousseauwho argued that children should be allowed to develop naturally and joyously.
His idea of appealing to a children's natural interests took hold among writers for children. The History of Harry and Lucy urged children to teach themselves.
Its founder, Johann Bernhard Basedowauthored Elementarwerk as a popular textbook for children that included many illustrations by Daniel Chodowiecki.
Another follower, Joachim Heinrich Campecreated an adaptation of Robinson Crusoe that went into over printings.
He became Germany's "outstanding and most modern" : This dislike of non-traditional stories continued there until the beginning of the next century. As professors, they had a scholarly interest in the stories, striving to preserve them and their variations accurately, recording their sources.
By compiling these stories, they preserved Norway's literary heritage and helped create the Norwegian written language. The book became popular across Europe after it was translated into French by Isabelle de Montolieu. Golden age[ edit ] The shift to a modern genre of children's literature occurred in the midth century; didacticism of a previous age began to make way for more humorous, child-oriented books, more attuned to the child's imagination. The availability of children's literature greatly increased as well, as paper and printing became widely available and affordable, the population grew and literacy rates improved.
Regarded as the first "English masterpiece written for children" : InCarlo Collodi wrote the first Italian fantasy novel, The Adventures of Pinocchiowhich was translated many times. In that same year, Emilio Salgarithe man who would become "the adventure writer par excellence for the young in Italy"  first published his legendary character Sandokan.
The fourth beast would be a fourth kingdom with ten kings, and another king who would pull down three kings and make war on the "holy ones" for "a time, two times and a half," after which the heavenly judgement will be made against him and the "holy ones" will receive the everlasting kingdom. Daniel 8 In the third year of Belshazzar Daniel has vision of a ram and goat.
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The ram has two mighty horns, one longer than the other, and it charges west, north and south, overpowering all other beasts. A goat with a single horn appears from the west and destroys the ram. The goat becomes very powerful until the horn breaks off and is replaced by four lesser horns. A small horn that grows very large, it stops the daily temple sacrifices and desecrates the sanctuary for two thousand three hundred "evening and mornings" which could be either or days until the temple is cleansed.
The angel Gabriel informs him that the ram represents the Medes and Persians, the goat is Greece, and the "little horn" is a wicked king.
Prophecy of Seventy Weeks In the first year of Darius the Mede, Daniel meditates on the word of Jeremiah that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years; he confesses the sin of Israel and pleads for God to restore Israel and the "desolated sanctuary" of the Temple. The angel Gabriel explains that the seventy years stand for seventy "weeks" of years yearsduring which the Temple will first be restored, then later defiled by a "prince who is to come," "until the decreed end is poured out.
Daniel's final vision Daniel In the third year of Cyrus [Notes 5] Daniel sees in his vision an angel called "a man", but clearly a supernatural being who explains that he is in the midst of a war with the "prince of Persia", assisted only by Michael"your prince. A future king of Persia will make war on the king of Greecea "mighty king" will arise and wield power until his empire is broken up and given to others, and finally the king of the south identified in verse 8 as Egypt will go to war with the "king of the north.
He will defeat and subjugate Libya and Egypt, but "reports from the east and north will alarm him," and he will meet his end "between the sea and the holy mountain. At this time Michael will come. It will be a time of great distress, but all those whose names are written will be delivered.
Daniel fails to understand and asks again what will happen, and is told: Blessed is the one who waits for and reaches the end of the 1, days. Deuterocanonical books The Greek text of Daniel is considerably longer than the Hebrew, due to three additional stories: Historical background Daniel refusing to eat at the King's table, early s Bible illustration The visions of chapters 7—12 reflect the crisis which took place in Judea in — BC when Antiochus IV Epiphanesthe Greek king of the Seleucid Empirethreatened to destroy traditional Jewish worship in Jerusalem.
The High Priestly family was split by rivalry, and one member, Jason, offered the king a large sum to be made High Priest. Jason also asked—or more accurately, paid—to be allowed to make Jerusalem a polisor Greek city.
This meant, among other things, that city government would be in the hands of the citizens, which meant in turn that citizenship would be a valuable commodity, to be purchased from Jason. None of this threatened the Jewish religion, and the reforms were widely welcomed, especially among the Jerusalem aristocracy and the leading priests. Three years later Jason was deposed when another priest, Menelaus, offered Antiochus an even larger sum for the post of High Priest. Development It is generally accepted that Daniel originated as a collection of Aramaic court tales later expanded by the Hebrew revelations.
The book is a product of "Wisdom" circles, but the type of wisdom is mantic the discovery of heavenly secrets from earthly signs rather than the wisdom of learning—the main source of wisdom in Daniel is God's revelation.
Chapters 10—12 must therefore have been written between and BC. There is no evidence of a significant time lapse between those chapters and chapters 8 and 9, and chapter 7 may have been written just a few months earlier again. Daniel is, however, quoted in a section of the Sibylline Oracles commonly dated to the middle of the 2nd century BC, and was popular at Qumran at much the same time, suggesting that it was known from the middle of that century.
Both Greek texts contain three additions to Daniel: Theodotion is much closer to the Masoretic Text and became so popular that it replaced the original Septuagint version in all but two manuscripts of the Septuagint itself.
Between them, they preserve text from eleven of Daniel's twelve chapters, and the twelfth is quoted in the Florilegium a compilation scroll 4Q, showing that the book at Qumran did not lack this conclusion. All appear to preserve the chapter Masoretic version rather than the longer Greek text.
None reveal any major disagreements against the Masoretic, and the four scrolls that preserve the relevant sections 1QDana, 4QDana, 4QDanb, and 4QDand all follow the bilingual nature of Daniel where the book opens in Hebrewswitches to Aramaic at 2: This section deals with modern scholarly reconstructions of the meaning of Daniel to its original authors and audience Genre The Book of Daniel is an apocalypsea literary genre in which a heavenly reality is revealed to a human recipient; such works are characterized by visions, symbolism, an other-worldly mediator, an emphasis on cosmic events, angels and demons, and pseudonymity false authorship.
The four kingdoms and the little horn Daniel 2 and 7: The concept of four successive world empires stems from Greek theories of mythological history;  most modern interpreters agree that the four represent Babylonthe MedesPersia and the Greeksending with Hellenistic Seleucid Syria and with Hellenistic Ptolemaic Egypt.
The portrayal of God in Daniel 7: These people can be understood as the maskilim sagesor as the Jewish people broadly. The "mighty horn" stands for Alexander the Great reigned — BC and the "four lesser horns" represent the four principal generals Diadochi who fought over the Greek empire following Alexander's death.
The "little horn" again represents Antiochus IV. The key to the symbols lies in the description of the little horn's actions: Daniel reinterprets Jeremiah 's "seventy years" prophecy regarding the period Israel would spend in bondage to Babylon.
From the point of view of the Maccabean era, Jeremiah's promise was obviously not true—the gentiles still oppressed the Jews, and the "desolation of Jerusalem" had not ended. Daniel therefore reinterprets the seventy years as seventy "weeks" of years, making up years.