A Guide to the People, Culture and Religion of Tanzania
Tanzania - History: Most of the known history of Tanganyika before the 19th The trading contacts between Arabia and the East African coast resulted in the . The history of Zanzibar has been to a large extent shaped by the monsoons . to fix a date for the introduction of internal self-government or for independence. information in the coastal areas of mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar. .. Change in population and household size in past inter-census period ( - ). . also necessary to monitor to ensure that the metadata are kept up to date, and defined as the boundary of the sea landwards, i.e. the coastline is located in front. The United Republic of Tanzania is located between 10 00' S and 00' S and between 00' E and. 41 00' E. .. They included soil surveys, land resource inventories, farm boundary which, to a great extent, is still operational to-date.
As aforementioned, voluminous magmatism and continental flood basalts characterize some of the rift segments, while other segments, such as the Western branch, have only very small volumes of volcanic rock. Visible features include from background to foreground: The cratons are thick, and have survived for billions of years with little tectonic activity. They are characterized by greenstone beltstonalitesand other high-grade metamorphic lithologies.
The cratons are of significant importance in terms of mineral resourceswith major deposits of gold, antimony, iron, chromium and nickel.
It has been suggested that the diversity of the compositions could be partially explained by different mantle source regions. The EAR also cuts through old sedimentary rocks deposited in ancient basins. Although most of these mountains lie outside of the rift valley, the EAR created them. When DallaFilla erupted in it was the largest volcanic eruption in Ethiopia in recorded history.
The coastal trading centres were mainly Arab-controlled, and relations between the Arabs and their African neighbours appear to have been fairly friendly. After the arrival of the Portuguese in the late 15th century, the position of the Arabs was gradually undermined, but the Portuguese made little attempt to penetrate into the interior.
They lost their foothold north of the Ruvuma River early in the 18th century as a result of an alliance between the coastal Arabs and the ruler of Muscat on the Arabian Peninsula. This alliance remained extremely tenuoushowever, until French interest in the slave trade from the Tanganyikan coastal town of Kilwa revived the trade in For some time most of the slaves came from the Kilwa hinterland, and until the 19th century any contact between the coast and the interior was due mainly to African caravans from the interior.
In their constant search for slaves, Arab traders began to penetrate farther into the interior, particularly in the southeast toward Lake Nyasa.
Farther north two merchants from India followed the tribal trade routes to reach the country of the Nyamwezi about From the Nyamwezi country the Arabs pressed on to Lake Tanganyika in the early s. They did not annex these territories but occasionally ejected hostile chieftains. His empire was purely a personal one, however, and collapsed on his death in Major states, peoples, and trade routes of eastern Africa, c.
The first Europeans to show an interest in Tanganyika in the 19th century were missionaries of the Church Missionary SocietyJohann Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmannwho in the late s reached Kilimanjaro. These primarily geographic explorations were followed by the activities of David Livingstonewho in set out on his last journey for Lake Nyasa.
Summit of Kilimanjaro, northeastern Tanzania. Following the example of the British to the north, the Germans obtained a lease on the coastal strip from the sultan inbut their tactlessness and fear of commercial competition led to a Muslim uprising in August The rebellion was put down only after the intervention of the imperial German government and with the assistance of the British navy.
Eastern Africa as partitioned by the imperial powers, c. Germany was eager to exploit the resources of its new dependencybut lack of communications at first restricted development to the coastal area. In work began on the construction of a railway running northeastward from Tanga to Moshi, which it reached in This successfully encouraged the pioneer coffee-growing activities on the slopes of Kilimanjaro.
Wild rubber tapped by Africans, together with plantation-grown rubber, contributed to the economic development of the colony. The government also supplied good-quality cottonseed free to African growers and sold it cheaply to European planters. The administration tried to rectify the lack of clerks and minor craftsmen by encouraging the development of schools, an activity in which various missionary societies were already engaged.
The enforcement of German overlordship was strongly resisted, but control was established by the beginning of the 20th century. Almost at once came a reaction to German methods of administration, the outbreak of the Maji Maji uprising in Although there was little organization behind it, the uprising spread over a considerable portion of southeastern Tanganyika and was not finally suppressed until It led to a reappraisal of German policy in East Africa.
The imperial government had attempted to protect African land rights in but had failed in its objective in the Kilimanjaro area. Similarly, liberal labour legislation had not been properly implemented. The German government set up a separate Colonial Department inand more money was invested in East Africa.
A more liberal form of administration rapidly replaced the previous semimilitary system. World War I put an end to all German experiments. Blockaded by the British navy, the country could neither export produce nor get help from Germany.
The British advance into German territory continued steadily from until the whole country was eventually occupied. In these circumstances the Africans reverted to their old social systems and their old form of subsistence farming. Under the Treaty of Versailles signed June ; enacted JanuaryBritain received a League of Nations mandate to administer the territory except for Ruanda-Urundiwhich came under Belgian administration, and the Kionga triangle, which went to Portugal see Quionga.
Tanganyika Territory Sir Horace Byatt, administrator of the captured territory and, from tofirst British governor and commander in chief of Tanganyika Territory as it was then renamedenforced a period of recuperation before new development plans were set in motion. A Land Ordinance ensured that African land rights were secure. Sir Donald Cameron, governor from toinfused a new vigour into the country. He reorganized the system of native administration by the Native Authority Ordinance and the Native Courts Ordinance His object was to build up local government on the basis of traditional authorities, an aim that he pursued with doctrinaire enthusiasm and success.
He attempted to silence the criticisms by Europeans that had been leveled against his predecessor by urging the creation of a Legislative Council in with a reasonable number of nonofficial members, both European and Asian.
In the s, there were persistent fears that Tanganyika might be handed back to Germany in response to demands by Adolf Hitler —then chancellor of Germany—for overseas possessions. Inevitably the retrenchment evident in the s became still more severe, and, while prices for primary products soared, the value of money depreciated proportionately.
The chief item in the development program was a plan to devote 3 million acres 1. It failed because of the lack of adequate preliminary investigations and was subsequently carried out on a greatly reduced scale. Under the terms of the trusteeship agreement, Britain was called upon to develop the political life of the territory, which, however, only gradually began to take shape in the s. The first two African members had been nominated to the Legislative Council in December This number was subsequently increased to four, with three Asian nonofficial members and four Europeans.
An official majority was retained. In an important advance inthe three groups were given parity of representation on the unofficial side of the council with 10 nominated members each, and for a time it seemed as if this basis would persist. All candidates in competing in elections must belong to political parties. The prime minister, who is chosen from the assembly members, heads the assembly. If the president withholds his assent from a bill passed by the assembly, it does not become a law unless the assembly passes it again by a two-thirds majority.
The president may dissolve the assembly and call for new presidential and legislative elections if he refuses to assent to a law passed by such a majority within 32 days of its passage. The Revolutionary Council of Zanzibar, which held power on the islands sinceadopted a separate constitution in Octoberwhich it replaced in January The new constitution provides for a popularly elected president and a member Council of Representatives, 50 of whom are popularly elected and 25 appointed.
The government of Zanzibar has exclusive jurisdiction over internal matters, including immigration, finances, and economic policy. Since the s, a trend toward greater autonomy for Zanzibar has been the basis of political tension with the mainland. The Articles of Union and Acts of Union of provided for two governments: The Tanganyikan constitution of was amended to accommodate the two government arrangement, which has remained in place ever since.
However, the two-government system has been criticized as favoring Zanzibar because there is no separate government for the mainland. Moreover, Zanzibar's representation in parliament is considered to be disproportionate to its small population. In Augustfollowing Zanzibar's attempt to join the OIC in violation of the constitution, the National Assembly adopted a resolution that provided for the possibility of setting up a mainland or Tanganyikan government to parallel that of Zanzibar.
The issue of a federated system with three governments has remained a bone of contention between CCM and the opposition parties. Renegotiation of the Union pact was the key issue of the elections, the first contested elections on Tanzania in 20 years.
Although the former ruling party emerged from those elections with the Zanzibar presidency and a majority in the House of Representatives, the secessionist movement remained strong on the islands.
East African Rift
The Zanzibar government established its own department of revenue and foreign affairs. CCM's National Executive Committee postponed consideration of the issue until after the elections, effectively blocking Amour's bid. In Jakaya Kikwete was elected president with In controversial Zanzibar elections held in OctoberKarume won In Zanzibar, there were three important political parties prior to independence. It became the sole legal political party in Tanzania.
Elections within the single party framework were competitive, however. In the balloting on 13 and 27 Octobercandidates competed for elective seats in the National Assembly. Informer president Julius K. Nyerere was reelected chairman of the CCM. He stepped down into be succeeded by Ali Hassam Mwinyi. The CCM officially favors nonracism and African socialism. The basic aims, laid down in Nyerere's Arusha Declaration ofare social equality, self-reliance, economic cooperation with other African states, ujamaa familyhoodand the development of forms of economic activity, particularly in rural areas, based on collective efforts.
However, since the late s, CCM has slowly transformed itself into a pro-market, pro-business party. The party is divided into locally organized branches, which are grouped into districts, which in turn are grouped into regions. A central committee of 18 members is elected at periodic party congresses. Although Tanzania amended its constitution in to become a multiparty state, the CCM still controls government.
Tanzania - History | denicaragua.info
Other parties have tried to organize, and have complained of harassment by government and CCM activists. Before taking part in elections, the new parties undergo a six-month probation during which they can recruit and organize. Some 20 opposition groups had registered in the first four months of their legality. However, parties representing regional, racial, ethnic, or religious groups are explicitly prohibited.
Multiparty elections were held in Zanzibar on 25 October and union-wide on 29 October International observers and opposition parties accused the CCM of voter fraud and intimidation of opposition candidates in Zanzibar. Citing fraud in the election, the CUF boycotted the House and refused to recognize the Amour government. An agreement was reached between the two parties in but tensions on the island remained high as CUF charged CCM with not living up to the agreement.
As the elections approached, the treason suspects were still behind bars and clamoring to run for office from prison. The Union election held on 29 October was so disorganized that it was cancelled in Dar es Salaam and held again on 19 November.
Parliamentary election results saw the CCM win As of the October elections there were 12 permanently registered opposition parties: However, on Zanzibar the elections and postelections period were marred by violent civil unrest. The results of the National Assembly election were as follows: The results of the Zanzibar House of Representatives election were as follows: In the Union elections scheduled for Decemberten political parties fielded candidates for the presidency of Tanzania.
Benjamin Mkapa of CCM stepped down as mandated by the constitution. CCM fielded Jakaya Kikwete who won the presidency with The next general elections were to be held December Zanzibar and Pemba are divided into five regions.
Regional commissioners are appointed by the central government, as are district commissioners and development directors for the districts. The units of local government are district development councils. Each district development council includes elected members, but these bodies are only advisory. In Zanzibar, revolutionary committees are responsible for regional administration. Local courts are presided over by appointed magistrates.
They have limited jurisdiction, and there is a right of appeal to district courts, headed by either resident or district magistrates. Appeal can be made to the High Court, which consists of a chief justice and 17 judges appointed by the president.
It has both civil and criminal jurisdiction over all persons and all matters. Appeals from the High Court can be made to the five-member Court of Appeal. Judges are appointed to the Court of Appeal and the High Court by the president on the advice of the chief justice and to courts at lower levels by the chief justice.
Inthe Zanzibar courts were made parallel to those of the mainland. Islamic courts handle some civil matters. Cases concerning the Zanzibar constitution are heard only in Zanzibar courts. All other cases may be appealed to the Court of Appeal of the Republic.
Although declared independent by the constitution, the judiciary is subject to executive branch influence and is criticized as inefficient and corrupt.
People, Culture and Religion
Questions have been raised as to the availability of a fair trial in politically charged cases. The Army had 23, personnel in 5 infantry brigades, 1 tank brigade, 6 artillery battalions, 2 mortar battalions, 2 antitank battalions, 2 air defense battalions, and 1 engineering regiment. Equipment included 45 main battle tanks, 55 light tanks and artillery pieces. The Air Defense Command numbered an estimated 3, operating 19 combat capable aircraft, including 9 fighters and 10 fighter ground attack aircraft.
Police field forces, which included naval and air units, numbered 1, Julius Nyerere, Tanzania's first president, was one of the founding members of the Nonaligned Movement. A second treaty establishing a Customs Union was signed in March ECONOMY Tanzania has an agricultural economy whose chief commercial crops are sisal, coffee, cotton, tea, tobacco, pyrethrum, spices, and cashew nuts. The most important minerals are gold and diamonds. Industry is mainly concerned with the processing of agricultural materials for export and local consumption.
Gas production in the Rufiji Delta was scheduled for The multimillion dollar Songosongo gas pipeline project was being developed in After 25 years of socialist experimentation achieved important advances in education and health, poor economic performance led the government, into adopt market-style reforms in conjunction with the IMF structural adjustment program.
Since then, significant progress has been made in revitalizing the economy and donors have pledged additional funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. The economy was improving, with the mining, tourism, agriculture, construction, telecommunications, and utilities sectors all showing potential for growth.
The government had sold off state-owned enterprises, was welcoming foreign investment, and had implemented strict fiscal and monetary policies. Nonetheless, Tanzania's macroeconomic progress had not translated into better lives for its rural poor. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity PPP rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars.
The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 6. The average inflation rate in was 4. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period to household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 1. The labor force was estimated at The was no data available on unemployment in Tanzania.
Inby legislation of the National Assembly, the existing 13 trade unions were dissolved and amalgamated into a single national institution, the National Union of Tanzanian Workers. This was reorganized in to take in Zanzibar trade union activity as the Organization of Tanzania Trade Unions OTTUwhich still is the only labor union organization.
Strikes are permitted after a lengthy and complicated arbitration procedure which delays a resolution for months. Collective bargaining does not regularly occur, and public sector employee wages and benefits are set by the government.
With the permission of a parent, a child as young as 12 years old may work on a day-to-day basis. Employment of a long-term contractual nature cannot begin until a minor is at least Enforcement of these provisions is inadequate and has actually declined in recent years with increased privatization.
The standard workweek is 40 hours for government workers, while most private employers retain a 44 to hour workweek. A massive collectivization and cooperative agricultural program was begun in ; by the end of8, self-help villages, involving more than 14 million people, had been established.
The program was coupled with the takeover of large estates. The principal food crops are corn, millet, rice, sorghum, and pulses.
The chief cash crops are coffee, cotton, and cashew nuts; sisal, cloves, sugar, tea, pyrethrum, and tobacco are also important. Tanzania is one of Africa's leading producers of sisal; inproduction was 23, tons. Other estimated agricultural production in included manioc, 6, tons; corn, 2, tons; sorghum,tons; rice,tons; and millet,tons. Production in also included coffee, 47, tons; cotton,tons; cashew nuts,tons; tea, 25, tons; tobacco, 24, tons; sweet potatoes,tons; white potatoes,tons; and 83, tons of peanuts.
Sugarcane production in that year was an estimated 1, tons; bananas,tons; plantains,tons; dry beans,tons; seed cotton,tons; and cottonseed,tons. Tanzania is the third leading producer of cloves, which are grown mostly on Pemba; production totaled 12, tons in Tanzania is also an important producer of coconutstons inmostly from the island of Zanzibar.
There was a steady decline in agricultural production during the late s and early s because of drought and low prices paid by the state crop-marketing agencies. In addition, there was a shortage of farm implements; only 3, of the nation's 10, tractors were in working order inand even hand hoes and oxen plows were in acute shortage.
Bythere were some 7, tractors in service down from 8, in Beginning inreforms of the cooperative unions and crop marketing boards have aided production. The purchase of crops especially coffee, cotton, sisal, tea, and pyrethrum has been opened to private traders.
The estimated livestock population in included 17, head of cattle, 12, goats, 3, sheep,pigs, and 30, poultry. Abouttons of meat were produced in Milk production that year consisted oftons from cows andtons from goats. There is also fishing in the Indian Ocean. Nile perch, dagaas, and tilapias are the main species caught. There are about 13, hectares 32, acres of permanent forest reserves.
Small plantations for fast-growing trees have been established in these reserves. On the islands, remains of former forests are found only in two reserves. Production in included about Sawn wood production was 24, cu mcu ft that year.
MINING With the rebirth of the gold industry, ingold has dominated the mineral industry in Tanzania, and was expected to grow substantially in the near future. Because of significant exploration successes and government investment incentives, Tanzania's mining sector has been playing an increasingly important role in the economy.
- Tanzania - Location, size, and extent
- Geography of Tanzania
- East Africa
Tanzania's gross domestic product GDP grew by 7. Output of refined gold in totaled 48, kg, up from 43, kg in Diamond output in wascarats, down fromcarats in The deposits were jointly-owned by the government and Willcroft, of Canada.
Diamond production has declined since the peakcaratsbecause of depletion of higher-grade ores and equipment failure. Production hit a low inof 17, carats. Diamond resources were million tons containing 6.